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Base oil groups
Mineral oil term is used to encompass lubricating base oil derived from crude oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) designates several types of lubricant base oil:
- Group I – Saturates < 90% and/or sulfur> 0.03%, and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) viscosity index (VI) of 80 to 120
Manufactured by solvent extraction, solvent or catalytic dew-axing, and hydro-finishing processes. Common Group I base oil are 150SN (solvent neutral), 500SN, and 150BS (bright stock)
- Group II – Saturates > 90% and sulfur < 0.03%, and SAE viscosity index of 80 to 120
Manufactured by hydro cracking and solvent or catalytic dew-axing processes. Group II base oil has superior anti-oxidation properties since virtually all hydrocarbon molecules are saturated. It has water-white color.
- Group III – Saturates > 90%, sulfur < 0.03%, and SAE viscosity index over 120
Manufactured by special processes such as isohydromerization. Can be manufactured from base oil or slax wax from dew-axing process.
- Group IV – Polyalphaolefins(PAO)
- Group V – All others not included above such as naphthenics, PAG, esters.
The lubricant industry commonly extends this group terminology to include:
- Group I+ with a Viscosity Indexof 103–108
- Group II+ with a Viscosity Index of 113–119
- Group III+ with a Viscosity Index of at least 140
Lubricants perform the following key functions:
- Keep moving parts apart
- Reduce friction
- Transfer heat
- Carry away contaminants & debris
- Transmit power
- Protect against wear
- Prevent corrosion
- Seal for gases
- Stop the risk of smoke and fire of objects
- Prevent rust.