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Base oil groups

Mineral oil term is used to encompass lubricating base oil derived from crude oil. The American Petroleum Institute (API) designates several types of lubricant base oil:[2]

Manufactured by solvent extraction, solvent or catalytic dew-axing, and hydro-finishing processes. Common Group I base oil are 150SN (solvent neutral), 500SN, and 150BS (bright stock)

  • Group II – Saturates > 90% and sulfur < 0.03%, and SAE viscosity index of 80 to 120

Manufactured by hydro cracking and solvent or catalytic dew-axing processes. Group II base oil has superior anti-oxidation properties since virtually all hydrocarbon molecules are saturated. It has water-white color.

  • Group III – Saturates > 90%, sulfur < 0.03%, and SAE viscosity index over 120

Manufactured by special processes such as isohydromerization. Can be manufactured from base oil or slax wax from dew-axing process.

  • Group IV – Polyalphaolefins(PAO)
  • Group V – All others not included above such as naphthenics, PAG, esters.

The lubricant industry commonly extends this group terminology to include:

  • Group I+ with a Viscosity Indexof 103–108
  • Group II+ with a Viscosity Index of 113–119
  • Group III+ with a Viscosity Index of at least 140


Lubricants perform the following key functions:

  • Keep moving parts apart
  • Reduce friction
  • Transfer heat
  • Carry away contaminants & debris
  • Transmit power
  • Protect against wear
  • Prevent corrosion
  • Seal for gases
  • Stop the risk of smoke and fire of objects
  • Prevent rust.